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I'll put a dime in Ronald McDonald's fat assTopic%20Title
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stirring

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For every post in this topic. And if little Timmy Jackass dies from Tuberculosis because he can't get his two bucks for treatment, that's your fault.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.


Last edited by Holy Hell on Wed Jul 25, 2007 4:39 am, edited 5 times in total.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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The foxy ladies can't resist my sandwich

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Poor timmy jackass.
fuck
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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>_>

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Let us save Timmy Jackass from untimely death.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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The Stuff of Legends

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Jackass... I've heard that name somewhere before... :eh?:
The post has ended.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Kthnxbi

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Ahahhahaa this made me laugh
I hope Timmy Jackass is all happy and well
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Thanks to Ultimate Prosecutor for the sig ^_^
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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spr fckn srs peepz

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On one hand, an innocent child dies.

On the other hand, HH loses money if I post here.

Hm...
http://vanderlund.blogspot.com - Because the only fantasy worlds I like are those I write myself.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

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Location: Eetin ur cookiez :B

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Children need to have the right to live people!

(Isn't this going to end up as spam....but for a good cause?)
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Vicki made my sig~<3 Click sig to go to PW art thread!
My art blog ~ http://pheokirby.blogspot.com/
Wanna Brawl sometime? PM me for friend code~ :>
Re: I'll put a nickel in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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stirring

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There, I updated it from a penny to a nickel, because pennies are just too cheap.

EDIT: .. maybe pennies are better.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a nickel in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Archmage

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..Ok I posted for little timmy Jackass and Ronald has a charity box....who the hell knew!
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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The foxy ladies can't resist my sandwich

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Nickels are 5c coins right?
fuck
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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stirring

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Yes.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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>_>

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This thread reminds me of a song my mum sings at Christmas.
She changed it up to have dirty words in it, though.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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e × e = e²

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Pics or it didn't happen.
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Just for you Baki. can you marry me now?

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EVERYBODY NEEDS TO POST HERE ONE MILLION TIMES.

SAVE LITTLE TIMMY JACKASS.
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Shake it up, baby, now, TWIST AND SHOUT!

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F**K Timmy, let's bankrupt Holy Hell!
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Archmage

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How about for everyword you put a penny, repeats of words count and it starts...with the next poster.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Shake it up, baby, now, TWIST AND SHOUT!

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Ok, what can I do to help...


Oh I know!

The scientific study of human evolution encompasses the development of the genus Homo, but usually involves studying other hominids and hominines as well, such as Australopithecus. "Modern humans" are defined as the Homo sapiens species, of which the only extant subspecies is Homo sapiens sapiens; Homo sapiens idaltu (roughly translated as "elder wise man"), the other known subspecies, is extinct.[4] Anatomically modern humans appear in the fossil record in Africa about 130,000 years ago.[5][6]

The closest living relatives of Homo sapiens are the two species of chimpanzee: the Bonobo (Pan paniscus) and the Common Chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). The two species are equally close (they share the same common ancestor), the main difference between them is the social organization: matriarchal for the Bonobo and patriarchal for the Common Chimpanzee. Full genome sequencing resulted in the conclusion that "after 6.5 million years of separate evolution, the differences between bonobo/chimpanzee and human are just 10 times greater than those between two unrelated people and 10 times less than those between rats and mice". In fact, 98.4% of the DNA sequence is identical between the two Pan species and human.[7][8][9][10] It has been estimated that the human lineage diverged from that of chimpanzees about five million years ago, and from gorillas about eight million years ago. However, a hominid skull discovered in Chad in 2001, classified as Sahelanthropus tchadensis, is approximately seven million years old, which may indicate an earlier divergence.[11]

There are two prominent scientific theories of the origins of contemporary humans. They concern the relationship between modern humans and other hominids. The single-origin, or "out-of-Africa", hypothesis proposes that modern humans evolved in Africa and later migrated outwards to replace hominids in other parts of the world. The multiregional hypothesis, on the other hand, proposes that modern humans evolved, at least in part, from independent hominid populations.[12]

Geneticists Lynn Jorde and Henry Harpending of the University of Utah proposed that the variation in human DNA is minute compared to that of other species, and that during the Late Pleistocene, the human population was reduced to a small number of breeding pairs — no more than 10,000 and possibly as few as 1,000 — resulting in a very small residual gene pool. Various reasons for this hypothetical bottleneck have been postulated, the most popular[citation needed] being the Toba catastrophe theory.

Human evolution is characterized by a number of important physiological trends, including the expansion of the brain cavity and brain itself, which is typically 1,400 cm³ in volume, over twice that of a chimpanzee or gorilla. The pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that of other apes (heterochrony), allowing for an extended period of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile humans. Physical anthropologists argue that a reorganization of the structure of the brain is more important than cranial expansion itself. Other significant evolutionary changes included a reduction of the canine tooth, development of bipedal locomotion, and the descent of the larynx and hyoid bone, making speech possible. How these trends are related and what their role is in the evolution of complex social organization and culture are matters of ongoing debate.[13][14]


Rise of civilization

The rise of agriculture led to the foundation of stable human settlements.For more details on this topic, see History of the world.
The most widely accepted view among current anthropologists is that Homo sapiens originated in the African savanna around 200,000 BP (Before Present), descending from Homo erectus, had colonized Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 BP, and finally colonized the Americas approximately 10,000 years ago.[15] They displaced Homo neanderthalensis and other species descended from Homo erectus (which had colonized Eurasia as early as 2 million years ago) through more successful reproduction and competition for resources.

The earliest humans were hunter-gatherers, a lifestyle well-suited to the savanna. They generally lived in small, nomadic groups. Around 10,000 years ago, the advent of agriculture prompted the Neolithic Revolution. Access to a stable food source led to the formation of permanent human settlements, the domestication of animals, and the use of metal tools. Agriculture also encouraged trade and cooperation, leading to complex societies. Villages developed into thriving civilizations in regions such as the Middle East's Fertile Crescent.

Around 6,000 years ago, the first proto-states developed in Mesopotamia, Egypt and the Indus Valley. Military forces were formed for protection, and government bureaucracies for administration. States cooperated and competed for resources, in some cases waging wars. Around 2,000 – 3,000 years ago, some states, such as Persia, China, and Rome, developed through conquest into the first expansive empires. Influential religions, such as the Abrahamic and Dharmic religions, also rose to prominence at this time.

The late Middle Ages saw the rise of revolutionary ideas and technologies. In China, an advanced and urbanized economy promoted innovations such as printing and the compass, while the Islamic Golden Age saw major scientific advancements in Muslim empires. In Europe, the rediscovery of classical learning and inventions such as the printing press led to the Renaissance in the 14th century. Over the next 500 years, exploration and imperialistic conquest brought much of the Americas, Asia, and Africa under European control, leading to later struggles for independence. The Scientific Revolution in the 17th century and the Industrial Revolution in the 18th – 19th centuries promoted major innovations in transport, such as the railway and automobile; energy development, such as coal and electricity; and government, such as representative democracy and Communism.

As a result of such changes, modern humans live in a world that has become increasingly globalized and interconnected. Although this has encouraged the growth of science, art, and technology, it has also led to culture clashes, the development and use of weapons of mass destruction, and increased environmental destruction and pollution.


Map of early human migrations according to mitochondrial population genetics (The arctic is at the centre of the map and the numbers are millennia before present).
Habitat and population
For more details on this topic, see Demography and World population.
Early human settlements were dependent on proximity to water and, depending on the lifestyle, other natural resources, such as fertile land for growing crops and grazing livestock, or seasonally by hunting populations of prey. However, humans have a great capacity for altering their habitats by various methods, such as through irrigation, urban planning, construction, transport, and manufacturing goods, and with the advent of large-scale trade and transport infrastructure, proximity to these resources has become unnecessary, and in many places these factors are no longer a driving force behind the growth and decline of a population. Nonetheless, the manner in which a habitat is altered is often a major determinant in population change.

Technology has allowed humans to colonize all of the continents and adapt to all climates. Within the last few decades, humans have explored Antarctica, the ocean depths, and space, although long-term habitation of these environments is not yet possible. With a population of over six billion, humans are among the most numerous of the large mammals. Most humans (61%) live in Asia. The vast majority of the remainder live in the Americas (14%), Africa (13%) and Europe (12%), with 0.5% in Oceania. (See list of countries by population and list of countries by population density.)

Human habitation within closed ecological systems in hostile environments, such as Antarctica and outer space, is expensive, typically limited in duration, and restricted to scientific, military, or industrial expeditions. Life in space has been very sporadic, with no more than thirteen humans in space at any given time. Between 1969 and 1972, two humans at a time spent brief intervals on the Moon. As of 2007, no other celestial body has been visited by human beings, although there has been a continuous human presence in outer space since the launch of the initial crew to inhabit the International Space Station on October 31, 2000.

From AD 1800 to 2000, the human population increased from one billion to six billion. In 2004, around 2.5 billion out of 6.3 billion people (39.7%) lived in urban areas, and this percentage is expected to rise throughout the 21st century. Problems for humans living in cities include various forms of pollution and crime,[16] especially in inner city and suburban slums. Benefits of urban living include increased literacy, access to the global canon of human knowledge and decreased susceptibility to rural famines.

Humans have had a dramatic effect on the environment. It has been hypothesized that in the past, human predation has contributed to the extinction of a number of species; as humans are not generally preyed on themselves, humans have been described as the ultimate superpredators.[17] Currently, through land development and pollution, humans are thought to be the main contributor to global climate change.[18] This is believed to be a major contributor to the ongoing Holocene extinction event, a mass extinction which, if it continues at its current rate, is predicted to wipe out half of all species over the next century.[19][20]


Biology
For more details on this topic, see Human biology.

Physiology and genetics
For more details on this topic, see Human anatomy, Human physical appearance, and Human genetics.

An old diagram of a male human skeleton.Human body types vary substantially. Although body size is largely determined by genes, it is also significantly influenced by environmental factors such as diet and exercise. The average height of an adult human is about 5 to 6 feet (1.5 to 1.8 m) tall, although this varies significantly from place to place.[21][22] Humans are capable of fully bipedal locomotion, thus leaving their arms available for manipulating objects using their hands, aided especially by opposable thumbs. As human physiology has not fully adapted to bipedalism, the pelvic region and vertebral column tend to become worn, causing the elderly to have difficulty in walking.[citation needed]

Although humans appear relatively hairless compared to other primates, with notable hair growth occurring chiefly on the top of the head, underarms and pubic area, the average human has more hair follicles on his or her body than the average chimpanzee. The main distinction is that human hairs are shorter, finer, and less heavily pigmented than the average chimpanzee's, thus making them harder to see.[23]


An Inuit woman, circa 1907.The hue of human hair and skin is determined by the presence of pigments called melanins. Human skin hues can range from very dark brown to very pale pink, while human hair ranges from blond to brown to red to, most commonly, black.[24] Most researchers believe that skin darkening was an adaptation that evolved as a protection against ultraviolet solar radiation, as melanin is an effective sun-block.[25] The skin pigmentation of contemporary humans is geographically stratified, and in general correlates with the level of ultraviolet radiation. Human skin also has a capacity to darken (sun tanning) in response to exposure to ultraviolet radiation.[26][27]

The average sleep requirement is between seven and eight hours a day for an adult and nine to ten hours for a child; elderly people usually sleep for six to seven hours. Experiencing less sleep than this is common in modern societies; this sleep deprivation can lead to negative effects. A sustained restriction of adult sleep to four hours per day has been shown to correlate with changes in physiology and mental state, including fatigue, aggression, and bodily discomfort.

Humans are an eukaryotic species. Each diploid cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes, each set received from one parent. There are 22 pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. By present estimates, humans have approximately 20,000 – 25,000 genes. Like other mammals, humans have an XY sex-determination system, so that females have the sex chromosomes XX and males have XY. The X chromosome is larger and carries many genes not on the Y chromosome, which means that recessive diseases associated with X-linked genes, such as hemophilia, affect men more often than women.


Human embryo at 5 weeks.
Life cycle
The human life cycle is similar to that of other placental mammals. New humans develop viviparously from conception. An egg is usually fertilized inside the female by sperm from the male through sexual intercourse, though the recent technology of in vitro fertilization is occasionally used. The fertilized egg, called a zygote, divides inside the female's uterus to become an embryo, which over a period of thirty-eight weeks (9 months) of gestation becomes a human fetus. After this span of time, the fully-grown fetus is expelled from the female's body and breathes independently as an infant for the first time. At this point, most modern cultures recognize the baby as a person entitled to the full protection of the law, though some jurisdictions extend personhood to human fetuses while they remain in the uterus.


Two young human girls.Compared with that of other species, human childbirth is dangerous. Painful labors lasting twenty-four hours or more are not uncommon, and may result in injury, or even death, to the child or mother. This is because of both the relatively large fetal head circumference (for housing the brain) and the mother's relatively narrow pelvis (a trait required for successful bipedalism, by way of natural selection).[28][29] The chances of a successful labor increased significantly during the 20th century in wealthier countries with the advent of new medical technologies. In contrast, pregnancy and natural childbirth remain relatively hazardous ordeals in developing regions of the world, with maternal death rates approximately 100 times more common than in developed countries.[30]

Image:Old Hmong Man (Sapa Vietnam).jpg
An elderly man.In developed countries, infants are typically 3 – 4 kg (6 – 9 pounds) in weight and 50 – 60 cm (20 – 24 inches) in height at birth.[31] However, low birth weight is common in developing countries, and contributes to the high levels of infant mortality in these regions.[32] Helpless at birth, humans continue to grow for some years, typically reaching sexual maturity at 12 to 15 years of age. Human girls continue to grow physically until around the age of 18, and human boys until around age 21. The human life span can be split into a number of stages: infancy, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, adulthood and old age. The lengths of these stages, however — particularly the later ones — are not fixed.

There are striking differences in life expectancy around the world. The developed world is quickly getting older, with the median age around 40 years (highest in Monaco at 45.1 years), while in the developing world, the median age is 15 – 20 years (lowest in Uganda at 14.8 years). Life expectancy at birth in Hong Kong, China is 84.8 years for a female and 78.9 for a male, while in Swaziland, primarily because of AIDS, it is 31.3 years for both sexes.[33] While one in five Europeans is 60 years of age or older, only one in twenty Africans is 60 years of age or older.[34]

The number of centenarians (humans of age 100 years or older) in the world was estimated by the United Nations at 210,000 in 2002.[35] At least one person, Jeanne Calment, is known to have reached the age of 122 years; higher ages have been claimed but they are not well substantiated. Worldwide, there are 81 men aged 60 or older for every 100 women of that age group, and among the oldest, there are 53 men for every 100 women.

The philosophical questions of when human personhood begins and whether it persists after death are the subject of considerable debate. The prospect of death causes unease or fear for most humans. Burial ceremonies are characteristic of human societies, often inspired by beliefs in an afterlife or immortality.


Diet
Early Homo sapiens employed a "hunter-gatherer" method as their primary means of food collection, involving combining stationary plant and fungal food sources (such as fruits, grains, tubers, and mushrooms) with wild game which must be hunted and killed in order to be consumed. It is believed that humans have used fire to prepare and cook food prior to eating since the time of their divergence from Homo erectus. However, a small number of individuals choose a raw foodist approach, consuming little to no cooked food; the raw diet may be fruitarian, vegetarian, or omnivorous. As well, some humans have chosen to abstain from eating some or all meat. Such abstinence has been performed for religious, ethical, ecological, or health reasons.

Humans are omnivorous, capable of consuming both plant and animal products. The view of humans as omnivores is supported by the evidence that both a pure animal and a pure vegetable diet can lead to deficiency diseases in humans[citation needed]. A pure animal diet can, for instance, lead to scurvy, while a pure vegetarian diet can lead to deficiency of a number of nutrients, including Vitamin B12. Supplementation, particularly for vitamin B12, is highly recommended for people living on a pure vegetable diet[36].

The human diet is prominently reflected in human culture, and has led to the development of food science. In general, humans can survive for two to eight weeks without food, depending on stored body fat. Survival without water is usually limited to three or four days. Lack of food remains a serious problem, with about 300,000 people starving to death every year.[37] Childhood malnutrition is also common and contributes to the global burden of disease.[38] However global food distribution is not even, and obesity among some human populations has increased to almost epidemic proportions, leading to health complications and increased mortality in some developed, and a few developing countries. The United States Center for Disease Control states that 32% of American adults over the age of 20 are obese, while 66.5% are obese or overweight. Obesity is caused by consuming more calories than are expended, with many attributing excessive weight gain to a combination of overeating and insufficient exercise.

At least ten thousand years ago, humans developed agriculture,[39] which has substantially altered the kind of food people eat. This has led to increased populations, the development of cities, and because of increased population density, the wider spread of infectious diseases. The types of food consumed, and the way in which they are prepared, has varied widely by time, location, and culture.


Psychology

A sketch of the human brain, imposed upon the profile of Michelangelo's David - sketch by artist Priyan Weerappuli.For more details on this topic, see Human brain and Mind.
The human brain is the center of the central nervous system in humans, as well as the primary control center for the peripheral nervous system. The brain controls "lower", or involuntary, autonomic activities such as the respiration, and digestion. The brain also controls "higher" order, conscious activities, such as thought, reasoning, and abstraction.[40] These cognitive processes constitute the mind, and, along with their behavioral consequences, are studied in the field of psychology.

The human brain is generally regarded as more capable of these higher order activities, and more "intelligent" in general, than that of any other species.[citation needed] While other animals are capable of creating structures and using simple tools — mostly as a result of instinct and learning through mimicry — human technology is vastly more complex, constantly evolving and improving with time.[citation needed] Even the most ancient human tools and structures are far more advanced than any structure or tool created by any other animal.[41]

Modern Anthropology has tended to bear out Darwin's proposition that "the difference in mind between man and the higher animals, great as it is, certainly is one of degree and not of kind".[42]


Consciousness and thought
For more details on this topic, see Consciousness and Cognition.
The human ability to think abstractly may be unparalleled in the animal kingdom. Humans are one of only six species to pass the mirror test — which tests whether an animal recognizes its reflection as an image of itself — along with chimpanzees, orangutans, dolphins, and possibly pigeons. In October 2006, three elephants at the Bronx Zoo also passed this test.[43] Humans under the age of 2 typically fail this test.[44] However, this may be a matter of degree rather than a sharp divide. Monkeys have been trained to apply abstract rules in tasks.[45]

The brain perceives the external world through the senses, and each individual human is influenced greatly by his or her experiences, leading to subjective views of existence and the passage of time.

Humans are variously said to possess consciousness, self-awareness, and a mind, which correspond roughly to the mental processes of thought. These are said to possess qualities such as self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and one's environment. The extent to which the mind constructs or experiences the outer world is a matter of debate, as are the definitions and validity of many of the terms used above. The philosopher of cognitive science Daniel Dennett, for example, argues that there is no such thing as a narrative centre called the "mind", but that instead there is simply a collection of sensory inputs and outputs: different kinds of "software" running in parallel.[46]

Humans study the more physical aspects of the mind and brain, and by extension of the nervous system, in the field of neurology, the more behavioral in the field of psychology, and a sometimes loosely-defined area between in the field of psychiatry, which treats mental illness and behavioral disorders. Psychology does not necessarily refer to the brain or nervous system, and can be framed purely in terms of phenomenological or information processing theories of the mind. Increasingly, however, an understanding of brain functions is being included in psychological theory and practice, particularly in areas such as artificial intelligence, neuropsychology, and cognitive neuroscience.

The nature of thought is central to psychology and related fields. Cognitive psychology studies cognition, the mental processes underlying behavior. It uses information processing as a framework for understanding the mind. Perception, learning, problem solving, memory, attention, language and emotion are all well-researched areas as well. Cognitive psychology is associated with a school of thought known as cognitivism, whose adherents argue for an information processing model of mental function, informed by positivism and experimental psychology. Techniques and models from cognitive psychology are widely applied and form the mainstay of psychological theories in many areas of both research and applied psychology. Largely focusing on the development of the human mind through the life span, developmental psychology seeks to understand how people come to perceive, understand, and act within the world and how these processes change as they age. This may focus on intellectual, cognitive, neural, social, or moral development.

Some philosophers divide consciousness into phenomenal consciousness, which is experience itself, and access consciousness, which is the processing of the things in experience[47] Phenomenal consciousness is the state of being conscious, such as when we say "I am conscious." Access consciousness is being conscious of something in relation to abstract concepts, such as when one says "I am conscious of these words." Various forms of access consciousness include awareness, self-awareness, conscience, stream of consciousness, Husserl's phenomenology, and intentionality. The concept of phenomenal consciousness, in modern history, according to some, is closely related to the concept of qualia.

Social psychology links sociology with psychology in their shared study of the nature and causes of human social interaction, with an emphasis on how people think towards each other and how they relate to each other. The behavior and mental processes, both human and non-human, can be described through animal cognition, ethology, evolutionary psychology, and comparative psychology as well. Human ecology is an academic discipline that investigates how humans and human societies interact with both their natural environment and the human social environment.


Motivation and emotion

Goya's Tio Paquete (1820).For more details on this topic, see Motivation and Emotion.
Motivation is the driving force of desire behind all deliberate actions of human beings. Motivation is based on emotion — specifically, on the search for satisfaction (positive emotional experiences), and the avoidance of conflict; positive and negative are defined by the individual brain state, not by social norms: a person may be driven to self-injury or violence because their brain is conditioned to create a positive response to these actions. Motivation is important because it is involved in the performance of all learned responses.

Within psychology, conflict avoidance and the libido are seen to be primary motivators. Within economics motivation is often seen to be based on financial incentives, moral incentives, or coercive incentives. Religions generally posit divine or demonic influences.

Happiness, or being happy, is a human emotional condition. The definition of happiness is a common philosophical topic. Some people might define it as the best condition which a human can have — a condition of mental and physical health. Others may define it as freedom from want and distress; consciousness of the good order of things; assurance of one's place in the universe or society, inner peace, and so forth.

Human emotion has a significant influence on, or can even be said to control, human behavior, though historically many cultures and philosophers have for various reasons discouraged allowing this influence to go unchecked.

Emotional experiences perceived as pleasant, like love, admiration, or joy, contrast with those perceived as unpleasant, like hate, envy, or sorrow. There is often a distinction seen between refined emotions, which are socially learned, and survival oriented emotions, which are thought to be innate.

Human exploration of emotions as separate from other neurological phenomena is worthy of note, particularly in those cultures where emotion is considered separate from physiological state. In some cultural medical theories, to provide an example, emotion is considered so synonymous with certain forms of physical health that no difference is thought to exist. The Stoics believed excessive emotion was harmful, while some Sufi teachers (in particular, the poet and astronomer Omar Khayyám) felt certain extreme emotions could yield a conceptual perfection, what is often translated as ecstasy.

In modern scientific thought, certain refined emotions are considered to be a complex neural trait of many domesticated and a few non-domesticated mammals, developed commonly in reaction to superior survival mechanisms and intelligent interaction with each other and the environment; as such, refined emotion is not in all cases as discrete and separate from natural neural function as was once assumed. Still, when humans function in civilized tandem, it has been noted that uninhibited acting on extreme emotion can lead to social disorder and crime.


Rodin's "The Kiss"
Love and sexuality
For more details on this topic, see Love and Human sexuality.
Human sexuality, besides ensuring biological reproduction, has important social functions: it creates physical intimacy, bonds and hierarchies among individuals; may be directed to spiritual transcendence; and in a hedonistic sense to the enjoyment of activity involving sexual gratification. Sexual desire, or libido, is experienced as a bodily urge, often accompanied by strong emotions such as love, ecstasy and jealousy.

As with other human self-descriptions, humans propose that it is high intelligence and complex societies of humans that have produced the most complex sexual behaviors of any animal, including a great many behaviors that are not directly connected with reproduction.

Human sexual choices are usually made in reference to cultural norms, which vary widely. Restrictions are sometimes determined by religious beliefs or social customs.

Many sexologists believe that the majority of Homo sapiens have the inherent capacity to be attracted to both males and females (a kind of universal potential bisexuality). In a variation of this, pioneering researcher Sigmund Freud believed that humans are born polymorphously perverse, which means that any number of objects could be a source of pleasure. According to Freud, humans then pass through five stages of psychosexual development (and can fixate on any stage because of various traumas during the process). For Alfred Kinsey, another influential sex researcher, people can fall anywhere along a continuous scale of sexual orientation (with only small minorities fully heterosexual or homosexual). Recent studies of neurology and genetics suggest people may be born with one sexual orientation or another, so there is not currently a clear consensus among sex researchers.[48][49]


Culture
For more details on this topic, see Culture.
Culture is defined here as a set of distinctive material, intellectual, emotional, and spiritual features of a social group, including art, literature, lifestyles, value systems, traditions, rituals, and beliefs. The link between human biology and human behavior and culture is often very close, making it difficult to clearly divide topics into one area or the other; as such, the placement of some subjects may be based primarily on convention.

Culture consists of values, social norms, and artifacts. A culture's values define what it holds to be important or ethical. Closely linked are norms, expectations of how people ought to behave, bound by tradition. Artifacts, or "material culture", are objects derived from the culture's values, norms, and understanding of the world.

The mainstream anthropological view of ‘culture’ implies that we most people experience a strong resistance when reminded that there is an animal as well as a spiritual aspect to human nature.[42]


Language
For more details on this topic, see Language.
The capacity humans have to transfer concepts, ideas and notions through speech and writing is unrivaled in known species. The faculty of speech is a defining feature of humanity, possibly predating phylogenetic separation of the modern population (see origin of language). Language is central to the communication between humans, as well as being central to the sense of identity that unites nations, cultures and ethnic groups.

The invention of writing systems around 5000 years ago allowed the preservation of language on material objects, and was a major step in cultural evolution. Language is closely tied to ritual and religion (cf. mantra, sacred text).

The science of linguistics describes the structure of language and the relationship between languages. There are approximately 6,000 different languages currently in use, including sign languages, and many thousands more that are considered extinct.


Art, music and literature

Allegory of Music (ca. 1594), a painting of a woman writing sheet music by Lorenzo Lippi.For more details on this topic, see Art, Music, and Literature.
Artistic works have existed for almost as long as humankind, from early pre-historic art to contemporary art. Art is one of the most unusual aspects of human behavior and a key distinguishing feature of humans from other species.

As a form of cultural expression by humans, art may be defined by the pursuit of diversity and the usage of narratives of liberation and exploration (i.e. art history, art criticism, and art theory) to mediate its boundaries. This distinction may be applied to objects or performances, current or historical, and its prestige extends to those who made, found, exhibit, or own them.

In the modern use of the word, art is commonly understood to be the process or result of making material works which, from concept to creation, adhere to the "creative impulse" — that is, art is distinguished from other works by being in large part unprompted by necessity, by biological drive, or by any undisciplined pursuit of recreation.

Music is a natural intuitive phenomenon based on the three distinct and interrelated organization structures of rhythm, harmony, and melody. Listening to music is perhaps the most common and universal form of entertainment for humans, while learning and understanding it are popular disciplines. There are a wide variety of music genres and ethnic musics.

Literature, the body of written — and possibly oral — works, especially creative ones, includes prose, poetry and drama, both fiction and non-fiction. Literature includes such genres as epic, legend, myth, ballad, and folklore.


Sculpture of a man meditating.
Spirituality and religion
For more details on this topic, see Spirituality and Religion.
Spirituality, belief or involvement in matters of the soul or spirit, is one of the many different approaches humans take in trying to answer fundamental questions about humankind's place in the universe, the meaning of life, and the ideal way to live one's life. Though these topics have also been addressed by philosophy, and to some extent by science, spirituality is unique in that it focuses on mystical or supernatural concepts such as karma and God. However, critics would argue that spirituality does not actually answer any questions, and complicates the issues further by raising more questions.[50]

A more organized, but related, concept is religion — sometimes used interchangeably with "faith" — which is commonly defined as a belief system concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the moral codes, practices, values, institutions and rituals associated with such belief. In the course of its development, religion has taken on many forms that vary by culture and individual perspective.


The largest religious gathering of humans in history. Around 70 million people from around the world participated in Kumbh Mela at the Hindu holy city of Prayaga, India.Some of the chief questions and issues religions are concerned with include life after death (commonly involving belief in an afterlife), the origin of life (the source of a variety of origin beliefs), the nature of the universe (religious cosmology) and its ultimate fate (eschatology), and what is moral or immoral. A common source in religions for answers to these questions are transcendent divine beings such as deities or a singular God, although not all religions are theistic — many are nontheistic or ambiguous on the topic, particularly among the Eastern religions.

Although a majority of humans profess some variety of spiritual or religious belief, some are irreligious, lacking or rejecting belief in the supernatural or spiritual. Additionally, although most religions and spiritual beliefs are clearly distinct from science on both a philosophical and methodological level, the two are not generally considered to be mutually exclusive; a majority of humans hold a mix of both scientific and religious views. The distinction between philosophy and religion, on the other hand, is at times less clear, and the two are linked in such fields as the philosophy of religion and theology.


The Thinker, Artist's rendering of the sculpture by Auguste Rodin.
Philosophy and self-reflection
For more details on this topic, see Philosophy, Human self-reflection, and Human nature.
Philosophy is a discipline or field of study involving the investigation, analysis, and development of ideas at a general, abstract, or fundamental level. It is the discipline searching for a general understanding of values and reality by chiefly speculative means.

The core philosophical disciplines are logic, ontology or metaphysics, epistemology, and axiology, which includes the branches of ethics and aesthetics. Philosophy covers a very wide range of approaches, and is also used to refer to a worldview, to a perspective on an issue, or to the positions argued for by a particular philosopher or school of philosophy.


Plato and Aristotle in a detail from The School of Athens by Raphael.Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy concerned with the study of first principles, being and existence (ontology). In between the doctrines of religion and science, stands the philosophical perspective of metaphysical cosmology. This ancient field of study seeks to draw logical conclusions about the nature of the universe, humanity, god, and/or their connections based on the extension of some set of presumed facts borrowed from religion and/or observation.

Humans often consider themselves to be the dominant species on Earth, and the most advanced in intelligence and ability to manage their environment. This belief is especially strong in modern Western culture. Alongside such claims of dominance is often found radical pessimism because of the frailty and brevity of human life.

Humanism is a philosophy which defines a socio-political doctrine the bounds of which are not constrained by those of locally developed cultures, but which seeks to include all of humanity and all issues common to human beings. Because spiritual beliefs of a community often manifests as religious doctrine, the history of which is as factious as it is unitive, secular humanism grew as an answer to the need for a common philosophy that transcended the cultural boundaries of local moral codes and religions. Many humanists are religious, however, and see humanism as simply a mature expression of a common truth present in most religions. Humanists affirm the possibility of an objective truth and accept that human perception of that truth is imperfect. The most basic tenets of humanism are that humans matter and can solve human problems, and that science, freedom of speech, rational thought, democracy, and freedom in the arts are worthy pursuits or goals for all peoples. Humanism depends chiefly on reason and logic without consideration for the supernatural.


In the mid- to late 20th century, humans achieved a level of technological mastery sufficient to leave the atmosphere of Earth for the first time, explore space and walk on the moon.
Science and technology
For more details on this topic, see Science and Technology.
Science is the discovery of knowledge about the world by verifiable means. Technology is the objects humans make to serve their purposes.

Human cultures are both characterized and differentiated by the objects that they make and use. Archaeology attempts to tell the story of past or lost cultures in part by close examination of the artifacts they produced. Early humans left stone tools, pottery and jewelry that are particular to various regions and times.

Improvements in technology are passed from one culture to another. For instance, the cultivation of crops arose in several different locations, but quickly spread to be an almost ubiquitous feature of human life. Similarly, advances in weapons, architecture and metallurgy are quickly disseminated.

Such techniques can be passed on by oral tradition. The development of writing, itself a kind of technology, made it possible to pass information from generation to generation and from region to region with greater accuracy.

Together, these developments made possible the commencement of civilization and urbanization, with their inherently complex social arrangements. Eventually this led to the institutionalization of the development of new technology, and the associated understanding of the way the world functions. This science now forms a central part of human culture.

In recent times, physics and astrophysics have come to play a central role in shaping what is now known as physical cosmology, that is, the understanding of the universe through scientific observation and experiment. This discipline, which focuses on the universe as it exists on the largest scales and at the earliest times, begins by arguing for the big bang, a sort of cosmic expansion from which the universe itself is said to have erupted ~13.7 ± 0.2 billion (109) years ago. After its violent beginnings and until its very end, scientists then propose that the entire history of the universe has been an orderly progression governed by physical laws.


Race and ethnicity
For more details on this topic, see Race and Ethnic group.
Humans often categorize themselves in terms of race or ethnicity, although the validity of human races as true biological categories is questionable.[51] Human racial categories are based on both ancestry and visible traits, especially skin color and facial features. These categories may also carry some information on non-visible biological traits, such as the risk of developing particular diseases such as sickle-cell disease.[52]

Genetic studies have demonstrated that humans on the African continent are most genetically diverse (Y-chromosome and MtDNA lineages).[53] However, compared to many other animals, human gene sequences are remarkably homogeneous. It has been claimed that the majority of genetic variation occurs within "racial groups", with only 5 to 15% of total variation occurring between racial groups.[54] However, this remains an area of active debate.[55][56]

Ethnic groups, on the other hand, are more often linked by linguistic, cultural, ancestral, and national or regional ties. Self-identification with an ethnic group is based on kinship and descent. Race and ethnicity can lead to variant treatment and impact social identity, giving rise to racism and the theory of identity politics.


Society
For more details on this topic, see Society.
Society is the system of organizations and institutions arising from interaction between humans.


Government and politics

The United Nations complex in New York City, which houses one of the largest human political organizations in the world.For more details on this topic, see Government, Politics, and State.
A state is an organized political community occupying a definite territory, having an organized government, and possessing internal and external sovereignty. Recognition of the state's claim to independence by other states, enabling it to enter into international agreements, is often important to the establishment of its statehood. The "state" can also be defined in terms of domestic conditions, specifically, as conceptualized by Max Weber, "a state is a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the 'legitimate' use of physical force within a given territory."[57]

Government can be defined as the political means of creating and enforcing laws; typically via a bureaucratic hierarchy.

Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. Although the term is generally applied to behavior within governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions, including corporate, academic, and religious institutions. Many different political systems exist, as do many different ways of understanding them, and many definitions overlap. The most common form of government worldwide is a republic, however other examples include monarchy, social democracy, military dictatorship and theocracy.

All of these issues have a direct relationship with economics.


The atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki immediately killed over 120,000 humans.
War
For more details on this topic, see War.
War is a state of widespread conflict between states, organizations, or relatively large groups of people, which is characterized by the use of lethal violence between combatants or upon civilians. It is estimated that during the 20th century between 167 and 188 million humans died as a result of war.[58]

A common perception of war is a series of military campaigns between at least two opposing sides involving a dispute over sovereignty, territory, resources, religion or other issues. A war said to liberate an occupied country is sometimes characterized as a "war of liberation", while a war between internal elements of a state is a civil war.

There have been a wide variety of rapidly advancing tactics throughout the history of war, ranging from conventional war to asymmetric warfare to total war and unconventional warfare. Techniques include hand to hand combat, the use of ranged weapons, propaganda and ethnic cleansing. Military intelligence has often played a key role in determining victory and defeat. In modern warfare, soldiers and armoured fighting vehicles are used to control the land, warships the sea, and air power the sky. Outer space has recently become a factor in warfare as well, although no actual warfare is currently carried out in space. War is a strong catalyst in politics, history and technology. Important inventions such as medicine, navigation, metallurgy, mass production, nuclear power and computers having been completely or partially driven by war.[citation needed]

Throughout history there has been a constant struggle between defense and offense, armour, and the weapons designed to breach it. Modern examples include the bunker buster bomb, and the bunkers which they are designed to destroy.


Trade and economics

Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.For more details on this topic, see Trade and Economics.
Trade is the voluntary exchange of goods, services, or both, and a form of economics. A mechanism that allows trade is called a market. The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning. The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade.

Trade exists for many reasons. Because of specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of manufacturing or service, trading their labour for products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have an absolute or comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. As such, trade between locations benefits both locations.

Economics is a social science that studies the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services.

Economics, which focuses on measurable variables, is broadly divided into two main branches: microeconomics, which deals with individual agents, such as households and businesses, and macroeconomics, which considers the economy as a whole, in which case it considers aggregate supply and demand for money, capital and commodities. Aspects receiving particular attention in economics are resource allocation, production, distribution, trade, and competition. Economic logic is increasingly applied to any problem that involves choice under scarcity or determining economic value. Mainstream economics focuses on how prices reflect supply and demand, and uses equations to predict consequences of decisions.


Effect on ecosystems
For more details on this topic, see Environmentalism.
This section stub requires expansion.

The neutrality of this article or section is disputed.
Please see the discussion on the talk page.

Humanity is often criticized for destructively affecting the environment. This destruction has been described as the 7th mass extinction of the history of earth, possibly one of the fastest ever (the 6th wiped out the dinosaurs). Some, such as E. O. Wilson of Harvard University, predict that man's destruction of the biosphere could cause the extinction of one-half of all species in the next 100 years.

One study asserts that after the Chernobyl disaster the benefit to the environment due to man leaving the region outweighed the negative effects of the heavy radiation.[59]Environmentalist James Lovelock even stated:

“ I have wondered if the small volumes of nuclear waste from power production should be stored in tropical forests and other habitats in need of a reliable guardian against their destruction by greedy developers ”

Humankind's impact on the environment has slowly become a major issue for human society, as people become more conscious of their effects on the environment. The documentation of humankind's negative effects on the environment in books such as Silent Spring or documentaries such as An Inconvenient Truth draw attention to environmental crises, and various steps are taken to remedy them. Regardless, humankind's effect on its environment continues to be a controversial issue.
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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stirring

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I already knew all of that. Mind posting an article on quantum mechanics or something fun?

Anyways, I'm only doing this by post counts, because I doubt I have enough pennies to do it by word. I do have tons of pennies though.

Come on, be charitable and post.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Shake it up, baby, now, TWIST AND SHOUT!

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If you insist.

Overview
The word "quantum" (Latin, "how much") in quantum mechanics refers to a discrete unit that quantum theory assigns to certain physical quantities, such as the energy of an atom at rest (see Figure 1, at right). The discovery that waves have discrete energy packets (called quanta) that behave in a manner similar to particles led to the branch of physics that deals with atomic and subatomic systems which we today call Quantum Mechanics. It is the underlying mathematical framework of many fields of physics and chemistry, including condensed matter physics, solid-state physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, computational chemistry, quantum chemistry, particle physics, and nuclear physics. The foundations of quantum mechanics were established during the first half of the twentieth century by Werner Heisenberg, Max Planck, Louis de Broglie, Niels Bohr, Erwin Schrödinger, Max Born, John von Neumann, Paul Dirac, Wolfgang Pauli and others. Some fundamental aspects of the theory are still actively studied.

It is necessary to use quantum mechanics to understand the behavior of systems at atomic length scales and smaller. For example, if Newtonian mechanics governed the workings of an atom, electrons would rapidly travel towards and collide with the nucleus. However, in the natural world the electrons normally remain in an unknown orbital path around the nucleus, defying classical electromagnetism.

Quantum mechanics was initially developed to explain the atom, especially the spectra of light emitted by different atomic species. The quantum theory of the atom developed as an explanation for the electron's staying in its orbital, which could not be explained by Newton's laws of motion and by Maxwell's laws of classical electromagnetism.

In the formalism of quantum mechanics, the state of a system at a given time is described by a complex wave function (sometimes referred to as orbitals in the case of atomic electrons), and more generally, elements of a complex vector space. This abstract mathematical object allows for the calculation of probabilities of outcomes of concrete experiments. For example, it allows one to compute the probability of finding an electron in a particular region around the nucleus at a particular time. Contrary to classical mechanics, one cannot ever make simultaneous predictions of conjugate variables, such as position and momentum, with arbitrary accuracy. For instance, electrons may be considered to be located somewhere within a region of space, but with their exact positions being unknown. Contours of constant probability, often referred to as "clouds" may be drawn around the nucleus of an atom to conceptualize where the electron might be located with the most probability. It should be stressed that the electron itself is not spread out over such cloud regions. It is either in a particular region of space, or it is not. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle quantifies the inability to precisely locate the particle.

The other exemplar that led to quantum mechanics was the study of electromagnetic waves such as light. When it was found in 1900 by Max Planck that the energy of waves could be described as consisting of small packets or quanta, Albert Einstein exploited this idea to show that an electromagnetic wave such as light could be described by a particle called the photon with a discrete energy dependent on its frequency. This led to a theory of unity between subatomic particles and electromagnetic waves called wave-particle duality in which particles and waves were neither one nor the other, but had certain properties of both. While quantum mechanics describes the world of the very small, it also is needed to explain certain "macroscopic quantum systems" such as superconductors and superfluids.

Broadly speaking, quantum mechanics incorporates four classes of phenomena that classical physics cannot account for: (i) the quantization (discretization) of certain physical quantities, (ii) wave-particle duality, (iii) the uncertainty principle, and (iv) quantum entanglement. Each of these phenomena will be described in greater detail in subsequent sections.


[edit] History
Main article: History of quantum mechanics
The history of quantum mechanics began essentially with the 1838 discovery of cathode rays by Michael Faraday, the 1859 statement of the black body radiation problem by Gustav Kirchhoff, the 1877 suggestion by Ludwig Boltzmann that the energy states of a physical system could be discrete, and the 1900 quantum hypothesis by Max Planck that any energy is radiated and absorbed in quantities divisible by discrete ‘energy elements’ ε such that each of these energy elements is proportional to the frequency ν with which they each individually radiate energy, as defined by the following formula:


where h is a numerical value called Planck’s Constant. Although Planck insisted that this was simply an aspect of the absorption and radiation of energy and had nothing to do with the physical reality of the energy itself, in 1905, to explain the photoelectric effect (1839), i.e. that shining light on certain materials can function to eject electrons from the material, Albert Einstein postulated, as based on Planck’s quantum hypothesis, that light itself consists of individual quanta, which later came to be called photons (1926). From Einstein's simple postulation was borne a flurry of debating, theorizing and testing, and thus, the entire field of quantum physics. Although Einstein would continue to contribute to this field of physics, he became increasingly uncomfortable with the "spooky" effects that came out of this new discipline.


[edit] Relativity and quantum mechanics
The modern world of physics is notably founded on two tested and demonstrably sound theories of general relativity and quantum mechanics —theories which appear to contradict one another. The defining postulates of both Einstein's theory of relativity and quantum theory are indisputably supported by rigorous and repeated empirical evidence. However, while they do not directly contradict each other theoretically (at least with regard to primary claims), they are resistant to being incorporated within one cohesive model.

Einstein himself is well known for rejecting some of the claims of quantum mechanics. While clearly inventive in his field, he did not accept the more exotic corollaries of quantum mechanics, such as the lack of deterministic causality, and the assertion that a single subatomic particle can occupy numerous areas of space at one time. He also noticed some of the more exotic consequences of entanglement and used them to formulate the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, in the hope of showing that quantum mechanics has unacceptable implications. The Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox shows that measuring the state of one particle can instantaneously change the state of its entangled partner, although the two particles can be an arbitrary distance apart. However, this effect does not violate causality, since no transfer of information is possible.

Moreover, there do exist quantum theories which incorporate special relativity—for example, quantum electrodynamics (QED), which is currently the most accurately-tested physical theory [1] —and these lie at the very heart of modern particle physics. Gravity is negligible in many areas of particle physics, so that unification between general relativity and quantum mechanics is not an urgent issue in those applications. However, the lack of a correct theory of quantum gravity is an important issue in cosmology.


[edit] Attempts at a unified theory
Main article: Quantum gravity
Inconsistencies arise when one tries to join the quantum laws with general relativity, a more elaborate description of spacetime which incorporates gravitation. Resolving these inconsistencies has been a major goal of twentieth- and twenty-first-century physics. Many prominent physicists, including Stephen Hawking, have labored in the attempt to discover a "Grand Unification Theory" that combines not only different models of subatomic physics, but also derives the universe's four forces—the strong force, weak force, electromagnetism, and gravity— from a single force or phenomenon.


[edit] Quantum mechanics and classical physics
Predictions of quantum mechanics have been verified experimentally to a very high degree of accuracy. Thus, current logic of correspondence principle between classical and quantum mechanics is that all objects obey laws of quantum mechanics, and classical mechanics is just a quantum mechanics of a large system (or a statistical quantum mechanics of a large collection of particles). Laws of classical mechanics thus follow from laws of quantum mechanics at the limit of large system or large quantum numbers.

Many "macroscopical" properties of "classic" systems are direct consequences of quantum behavior of its parts. For example, stability of bulk matter (which consists of atoms and molecules which would quickly collapse under electric forces alone), rigidity of this matter, mechanical, thermal, chemical, optical and magnetic properties of this matter - they are all results of interaction of electric charges under rules of quantum mechanics.

Because seemingly exotic behavior of matter posited by quantum mechanics and relativity theory become more apparent when dealing with extremely fast-moving or extremely tiny particles, the laws of classical "Newtonian" physics still remain accurate in predicting the behavior of surrounding us ("large") objects - of the order of the size of large molecules and bigger.

Despite the proposal of many novel ideas, the unification of quantum mechanics—which reigns in the domain of the very small—and general relativity—a superb description of the very large—remains a tantalizing future possibility. (See quantum gravity, string theory.)


[edit] Theory
There are numerous mathematically equivalent formulations of quantum mechanics. One of the oldest and most commonly used formulations is the transformation theory invented by Cambridge theoretical physicist Paul Dirac, which unifies and generalizes the two earliest formulations of quantum mechanics, matrix mechanics (invented by Werner Heisenberg)[2] and wave mechanics (invented by Erwin Schrödinger).

In this formulation, the instantaneous state of a quantum system encodes the probabilities of its measurable properties, or "observables". Examples of observables include energy, position, momentum, and angular momentum. Observables can be either continuous (e.g., the position of a particle) or discrete (e.g., the energy of an electron bound to a hydrogen atom).

Generally, quantum mechanics does not assign definite values to observables. Instead, it makes predictions about probability distributions; that is, the probability of obtaining each of the possible outcomes from measuring an observable. Naturally, these probabilities will depend on the quantum state at the instant of the measurement. There are, however, certain states that are associated with a definite value of a particular observable. These are known as "eigenstates" of the observable ("eigen" meaning "own" in German). In the everyday world, it is natural and intuitive to think of everything being in an eigenstate of every observable. Everything appears to have a definite position, a definite momentum, and a definite time of occurrence. However, quantum mechanics does not pinpoint the exact values for the position or momentum of a certain particle in a given space in a finite time, but, rather, it only provides a range of probabilities of where that particle might be. Therefore, it became necessary to use different words for (a) the state of something having an uncertainty relation and (b) a state that has a definite value. The latter is called the "eigenstate" of the property being measured.

For example, consider a free particle. In quantum mechanics, there is wave-particle duality so the properties of the particle can be described as a wave. Therefore, its quantum state can be represented as a wave, of arbitrary shape and extending over all of space, called a wavefunction. The position and momentum of the particle are observables. The Uncertainty Principle of quantum mechanics states that both the position and the momentum cannot simultaneously be known with infinite precision at the same time. However, one can measure just the position alone of a moving free particle creating an eigenstate of position with a wavefunction that is very large at a particular position x, and zero everywhere else. If one performs a position measurement on such a wavefunction, the result x will be obtained with 100% probability. In other words, the position of the free particle will be known. This is called an eigenstate of position. If the particle is in an eigenstate of position then its momentum is completely unknown. An eigenstate of momentum, on the other hand, has the form of a plane wave. It can be shown that the wavelength is equal to h/p, where h is Planck's constant and p is the momentum of the eigenstate. If the particle is in an eigenstate of momentum then its position is completely blurred out.

Usually, a system will not be in an eigenstate of whatever observable we are interested in. However, if one measures the observable, the wavefunction will instantaneously be an eigenstate of that observable. This process is known as wavefunction collapse. It involves expanding the system under study to include the measurement device, so that a detailed quantum calculation would no longer be feasible and a classical description must be used. If one knows the wavefunction at the instant before the measurement, one will be able to compute the probability of collapsing into each of the possible eigenstates. For example, the free particle in the previous example will usually have a wavefunction that is a wave packet centered around some mean position x0, neither an eigenstate of position nor of momentum. When one measures the position of the particle, it is impossible to predict with certainty the result that we will obtain. It is probable, but not certain, that it will be near x0, where the amplitude of the wavefunction is large. After the measurement is performed, having obtained some result x, the wavefunction collapses into a position eigenstate centered at x.

Wave functions can change as time progresses. An equation known as the Schrödinger equation describes how wave functions change in time, a role similar to Newton's second law in classical mechanics. The Schrödinger equation, applied to the aforementioned example of the free particle, predicts that the center of a wave packet will move through space at a constant velocity, like a classical particle with no forces acting on it. However, the wave packet will also spread out as time progresses, which means that the position becomes more uncertain. This also has the effect of turning position eigenstates (which can be thought of as infinitely sharp wave packets) into broadened wave packets that are no longer position eigenstates.

Some wave functions produce probability distributions that are constant in time. Many systems that are treated dynamically in classical mechanics are described by such "static" wave functions. For example, a single electron in an unexcited atom is pictured classically as a particle moving in a circular trajectory around the atomic nucleus, whereas in quantum mechanics it is described by a static, spherically symmetric wavefunction surrounding the nucleus (Fig. 1). (Note that only the lowest angular momentum states, labeled s, are spherically symmetric).

The time evolution of wave functions is deterministic in the sense that, given a wavefunction at an initial time, it makes a definite prediction of what the wavefunction will be at any later time. During a measurement, the change of the wavefunction into another one is not deterministic, but rather unpredictable, i.e., random. It should be noted, however, that in quantum mechanics, "random" has come to mean "random for all practical purposes," and not "absolutely random." Those new to quantum mechanics often confuse quantum mechanical theory's inability to predict exactly how nature will behave with the conclusion that nature is actually random.

The probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics thus stems from the act of measurement. This is one of the most difficult aspects of quantum systems to understand. It was the central topic in the famous Bohr-Einstein debates, in which the two scientists attempted to clarify these fundamental principles by way of thought experiments. In the decades after the formulation of quantum mechanics, the question of what constitutes a "measurement" has been extensively studied. Interpretations of quantum mechanics have been formulated to do away with the concept of "wavefunction collapse"; see, for example, the relative state interpretation. The basic idea is that when a quantum system interacts with a measuring apparatus, their respective wavefunctions become entangled, so that the original quantum system ceases to exist as an independent entity. For details, see the article on measurement in quantum mechanics.


[edit] Mathematical formulation
Main article: Mathematical formulation of quantum mechanics
See also: Quantum logic
In the mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum mechanics, developed by Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, the possible states of a quantum mechanical system are represented by unit vectors (called "state vectors") residing in a complex separable Hilbert space (variously called the "state space" or the "associated Hilbert space" of the system) well defined up to a complex number of norm 1 (the phase factor). In other words, the possible states are points in the projectivization of a Hilbert space. The exact nature of this Hilbert space is dependent on the system; for example, the state space for position and momentum states is the space of square-integrable functions, while the state space for the spin of a single proton is just the product of two complex planes. Each observable is represented by a densely defined Hermitian (or self-adjoint) linear operator acting on the state space. Each eigenstate of an observable corresponds to an eigenvector of the operator, and the associated eigenvalue corresponds to the value of the observable in that eigenstate. If the operator's spectrum is discrete, the observable can only attain those discrete eigenvalues.

The time evolution of a quantum state is described by the Schrödinger equation, in which the Hamiltonian, the operator corresponding to the total energy of the system, generates time evolution.

The inner product between two state vectors is a complex number known as a probability amplitude. During a measurement, the probability that a system collapses from a given initial state to a particular eigenstate is given by the square of the absolute value of the probability amplitudes between the initial and final states. The possible results of a measurement are the eigenvalues of the operator - which explains the choice of Hermitian operators, for which all the eigenvalues are real. We can find the probability distribution of an observable in a given state by computing the spectral decomposition of the corresponding operator. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is represented by the statement that the operators corresponding to certain observables do not commute.

The Schrödinger equation acts on the entire probability amplitude, not merely its absolute value. Whereas the absolute value of the probability amplitude encodes information about probabilities, its phase encodes information about the interference between quantum states. This gives rise to the wave-like behavior of quantum states.

It turns out that analytic solutions of Schrödinger's equation are only available for a small number of model Hamiltonians, of which the quantum harmonic oscillator, the particle in a box, the hydrogen-molecular ion and the hydrogen atom are the most important representatives. Even the helium atom, which contains just one more electron than hydrogen, defies all attempts at a fully analytic treatment. There exist several techniques for generating approximate solutions. For instance, in the method known as perturbation theory one uses the analytic results for a simple quantum mechanical model to generate results for a more complicated model related to the simple model by, for example, the addition of a weak potential energy. Another method is the "semi-classical equation of motion" approach, which applies to systems for which quantum mechanics produces weak deviations from classical behavior. The deviations can be calculated based on the classical motion. This approach is important for the field of quantum chaos.

An alternative formulation of quantum mechanics is Feynman's path integral formulation, in which a quantum-mechanical amplitude is considered as a sum over histories between initial and final states; this is the quantum-mechanical counterpart of action principles in classical mechanics.


[edit] Interactions with other scientific theories
The fundamental rules of quantum mechanics are very broad. They assert that the state space of a system is a Hilbert space and the observables are Hermitian operators acting on that space, but do not tell us which Hilbert space or which operators. These must be chosen appropriately in order to obtain a quantitative description of a quantum system. An important guide for making these choices is the correspondence principle, which states that the predictions of quantum mechanics reduce to those of classical physics when a system moves to higher energies or equivalently, larger quantum numbers. In other words, classic mechanics is simply a quantum mechanics of large systems. This "high energy" limit is known as the classical or correspondence limit. One can therefore start from an established classical model of a particular system, and attempt to guess the underlying quantum model that gives rise to the classical model in the correspondence limit.

Unsolved problems in physics: In the correspondence limit of quantum mechanics: Is there a preferred interpretation of quantum mechanics? How does the quantum description of reality, which includes elements such as the superposition of states and wavefunction collapse, give rise to the reality we perceive?When quantum mechanics was originally formulated, it was applied to models whose correspondence limit was non-relativistic classical mechanics. For instance, the well-known model of the quantum harmonic oscillator uses an explicitly non-relativistic expression for the kinetic energy of the oscillator, and is thus a quantum version of the classical harmonic oscillator.

Early attempts to merge quantum mechanics with special relativity involved the replacement of the Schrödinger equation with a covariant equation such as the Klein-Gordon equation or the Dirac equation. While these theories were successful in explaining many experimental results, they had certain unsatisfactory qualities stemming from their neglect of the relativistic creation and annihilation of particles. A fully relativistic quantum theory required the development of quantum field theory, which applies quantization to a field rather than a fixed set of particles. The first complete quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, provides a fully quantum description of the electromagnetic interaction.

The full apparatus of quantum field theory is often unnecessary for describing electrodynamic systems. A simpler approach, one employed since the inception of quantum mechanics, is to treat charged particles as quantum mechanical objects being acted on by a classical electromagnetic field. For example, the elementary quantum model of the hydrogen atom describes the electric field of the hydrogen atom using a classical Coulomb potential. This "semi-classical" approach fails if quantum fluctuations in the electromagnetic field play an important role, such as in the emission of photons by charged particles.

Quantum field theories for the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force have been developed. The quantum field theory of the strong nuclear force is called quantum chromodynamics, and describes the interactions of the subnuclear particles: quarks and gluons. The weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force were unified, in their quantized forms, into a single quantum field theory known as electroweak theory.

It has proven difficult to construct quantum models of gravity, the remaining fundamental force. Semi-classical approximations are workable, and have led to predictions such as Hawking radiation. However, the formulation of a complete theory of quantum gravity is hindered by apparent incompatibilities between general relativity, the most accurate theory of gravity currently known, and some of the fundamental assumptions of quantum theory. The resolution of these incompatibilities is an area of active research, and theories such as string theory are among the possible candidates for a future theory of quantum gravity.


[edit] Applications
Quantum mechanics has had enormous success in explaining many of the features of our world. The individual behaviour of the subatomic particles that make up all forms of matter - electrons, protons, neutrons, photons and so forth - can often only be satisfactorily described using quantum mechanics. Quantum mechanics has strongly influenced string theory, a candidate for a theory of everything (see reductionism). It is also related to statistical mechanics.

Quantum mechanics is important for understanding how individual atoms combine covalently to form chemicals or molecules. The application of quantum mechanics to chemistry is known as quantum chemistry. (Relativistic) quantum mechanics can in principle mathematically describe most of chemistry. Quantum mechanics can provide quantitative insight into ionic and covalent bonding processes by explicitly showing which molecules are energetically favorable to which others, and by approximately how much. Most of the calculations performed in computational chemistry rely on quantum mechanics.

Much of modern technology operates at a scale where quantum effects are significant. Examples include the laser, the transistor, the electron microscope, and magnetic resonance imaging. The study of semiconductors led to the invention of the diode and the transistor, which are indispensable for modern electronics.

Researchers are currently seeking robust methods of directly manipulating quantum states. Efforts are being made to develop quantum cryptography, which will allow guaranteed secure transmission of information. A more distant goal is the development of quantum computers, which are expected to perform certain computational tasks exponentially faster than classical computers. Another active research topic is quantum teleportation, which deals with techniques to transmit quantum states over arbitrary distances.

In many devices, even the simple light switch, quantum tunneling is vital, as otherwise the electrons in the electric current could not penetrate the potential barrier made up, in the case of the light switch, of a layer of oxide.


[edit] Philosophical consequences
Main article: Interpretation of quantum mechanics

Since its inception, the many counter-intuitive results of quantum mechanics have provoked strong philosophical debate and many interpretations. Even fundamental issues such as Max Born's basic rules concerning probability amplitudes and probability distributions took decades to be appreciated.

The Copenhagen interpretation, due largely to the Danish theoretical physicist Niels Bohr, is the interpretation of quantum mechanics most widely accepted amongst physicists. According to it, the probabilistic nature of quantum mechanics predictions cannot be explained in terms of some other deterministic theory, and does not simply reflect our limited knowledge. Quantum mechanics provides probabilistic results because the physical universe is itself probabilistic rather than deterministic.

Albert Einstein, himself one of the founders of quantum theory, disliked this loss of determinism in measurement (Hence his famous quote "God does not play dice with the universe."). He held that there should be a local hidden variable theory underlying quantum mechanics and consequently the present theory was incomplete. He produced a series of objections to the theory, the most famous of which has become known as the EPR paradox. John Bell showed that the EPR paradox led to experimentally testable differences between quantum mechanics and local theories. Experiments have been taken as confirming that quantum mechanics is correct and the real world must be described in terms of nonlocal theories.

The writer C.S. Lewis viewed QM as incomplete, because notions of indeterminism did not agree with his philosophical beliefs.[3] Lewis, a professor of English, was of the opinion that the Heisenberg uncertainty principle was more of an epistemic limitation than an indication of ontological indeterminacy, and in this respect believed similarly to many advocates of hidden variables theories. The Bohr-Einstein debates provide a vibrant critique of the Copenhagen Interpretation from an epistemological point of view.

The Everett many-worlds interpretation, formulated in 1956, holds that all the possibilities described by quantum theory simultaneously occur in a "multiverse" composed of mostly independent parallel universes. This is not accomplished by introducing some new axiom to quantum mechanics, but on the contrary by removing the axiom of the collapse of the wave packet: All the possible consistent states of the measured system and the measuring apparatus (including the observer) are present in a real physical (not just formally mathematical, as in other interpretations) quantum superposition. (Such a superposition of consistent state combinations of different systems is called an entangled state.) While the multiverse is deterministic, we perceive non-deterministic behavior governed by probabilities, because we can observe only the universe, i.e. the consistent state contribution to the mentioned superposition, we inhabit. Everett's interpretation is perfectly consistent with John Bell's experiments and makes them intuitively understandable. However, according to the theory of quantum decoherence, the parallel universes will never be accessible for us, making them physically meaningless. This inaccessibility can be understood as follows: once a measurement is done, the measured system becomes entangled with both the physicist who measured it and a huge number of other particles, some of which are photons flying away towards the other end of the universe; in order to prove that the wave function did not collapse one would have to bring all these particles back and measure them again, together with the system that was measured originally. This is completely impractical, but even if one can theoretically do this, it would destroy any evidence that the original measurement took place (including the physicist's memory).
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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The foxy ladies can't resist my sandwich

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Copy and pasting from Wikipedia ftw!
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Shake it up, baby, now, TWIST AND SHOUT!

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Yes!

Oh there's an article on that too!


Notes on usage
In English, "yes" is also used to answer a negative question or statement; an example of "yes" used to disagree with a question or statement is:
The questions "You don’t want it, do you?" and "Don’t you want it?" can be answered by "yes" if the respondent does want the item, and "no" if he or she does not. However, other words are used when the answer needs to be clearly delineated, as in "Of course I want it," or "No, not at all." It can be confusing when someone asks a question that only contains a negative statement. For example, "You don't want it?" can be answered "yes" or "no" and could be confused as meaning either yes or no. Many languages use a different word for this purpose. For example, German has "doch" for this purpose (rather than "ja"), French uses "si" (rather than "oui") and the mainland Scandinavian languages (Danish, Swedish and Norwegian) use "jo" ("jau" in Nynorsk).

Yes is similar in meaning to "yeah" and "yea", perhaps slang terms to make the word yes more casual.

An example of a language that does not have yes or no is Gaelic. In it, to indicate a positive or negate response to a question, the verb of the question is repeated in either the positive or negative form. For example (verb underlined):

"An maith leat Guinness?" ("Do you like Guinness?")
"Is maith." ("Yes.")
or
"Ní maith." ("No.")
This practice was influenced the form of English spoken in Ireland, often called Hiberno-English, where yes and no are used more infrequently than in other forms of English. The same question would often be answered, "I do" or "I don't" in substitute or combination to yes or no.


[edit] Famous yeses
Perhaps the most famous "yes" in literature comes from Molly Bloom's soliloquy, which is the concluding "Penelope" chapter in James Joyce's Ulysses.[1]. In this chapter, Joyce uses Molly Bloom's "yes" as a sort of refrain in a very long stream of consciousness sentence. The chapter both begins,

Yes because he never did a thing like that before as ask to get his breakfast in bed with a couple of eggs since the CITY ARMS hotel. . .
and ends:

. . . yes and then he asked me would I yes to say yes my mountain flower and first I put my arms around him yes and drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts all perfume yes and his heart was going like mad and yes I said yes I will Yes.
with the word yes.

When John Lennon met Yoko Ono, one of the first works by Ono that captured Lennon's attention was a large canvas which viewers were invited to inspect by a glass, through which they could read the single word "Yes" written on it. [2]

Francis Pharcellus Church wrote a famous editorial called Yes, Virginia, there is a Santa Claus, affirming at least the spiritual existence of Santa Claus to a doubting child. Portions of Church's text are often circulated by other newspapers each Christmas.

Roger Fisher and Bruce Patton wrote a famous self-help book about negotiation and salesmanship called Getting to YES. This book has sold more than 2 million copies and been translated into 20 languages. By contrast, a yes-man is a sycophant or a toady; this word is used in business circles to identify people who enthusiastically endorse everything their superiors propose in order to curry favor with them. The turn of phrase is an old one; in Latin, a toady was called babaecalus, someone who cried "Bravo" (Latin babae) to everything their superior did.[3] But Friedrich Nietzsche's Zarathustra calls himself a yes-sayer, with somewhat more positive intent:

I, however, am a blesser and a Yes-sayer, if you be but around me, you pure, you luminous heaven! you abyss of light!- into all abysses do I then carry my beneficent Yes-saying.
A blesser have I become and a Yes-sayer: and therefore strove I long and was a striver, that I might one day get my hands free for blessing.[4]
There is a recurring character on animated comedy The Simpsons called the 'yes guy' who says yes in a long drawn out falsetto manner, according to him because he has a stroke.
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Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Zvarri!

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Holy Hell, while I'm not going to do it, you know you're asking for spam, right?

Anyways, Timmy Jackass is my neighbor, and I say he deserves a penny or two. Just don't give it to Ronald, that guy scares the hell out of me.
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stirring

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Daramue wrote:
Holy Hell, while I'm not going to do it, you know you're asking for spam, right?


I'd like to think that somebody cares about making actually good posts for the sake of charity. Or making me bankrupt. One of the two.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.


Last edited by Holy Hell on Mon Jul 09, 2007 12:55 am, edited 1 time in total.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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The foxy ladies can't resist my sandwich

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Do your posts count towards the donation?
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stirring

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Yes. I'm going by the post count that's stated in the topic listing.

I'm going to refrain from posting often though.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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The foxy ladies can't resist my sandwich

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Ah. Jolly.
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>_>

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Another penny for Timmy. :maya:
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Archmage

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nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu 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nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp nsəp desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu desu ...



DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU DESU
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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Shake it up, baby, now, TWIST AND SHOUT!

Gender: Male

Location: Back in the U.S.S.R.

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Joined: Sun Apr 22, 2007 5:19 pm

Posts: 1913

Ah, shit that hurt my eyes. Some were even appearing upside down it hurt so much...
Oh.
Image
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Paddy O'Reily O'Shwartzenburg

Gender: None specified

Location: Hotel Moscow

Rank: Donor

Joined: Fri Feb 23, 2007 4:30 am

Posts: 841

=3= cut the spam out, guys, seriously.

And if you're going to just waste money on little shits, why not give it to a good cause, like us.

Or me. You can always give it to me.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Archmage

Gender: Male

Location: New Jersey

Rank: Medium-in-training

Joined: Wed May 02, 2007 12:48 am

Posts: 309

Larry Butz needs the pennies to call up hookers from Fey Fey Land and Pros some were upside down, that is the way I copied it.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

*insert something witty here*

Gender: Male

Rank: Decisive Witness

Joined: Wed Feb 28, 2007 12:25 pm

Posts: 177

Needs less DESU. A lot less.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Archmage

Gender: Male

Location: New Jersey

Rank: Medium-in-training

Joined: Wed May 02, 2007 12:48 am

Posts: 309

I think it needs more bidoof.


So HH are you really doing thing... I had a theory, that mcdonalds uses that money to pay their employees,
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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stirring

Gender: Female

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Joined: Tue Feb 27, 2007 5:26 pm

Posts: 4791

It needs less spam.

Why don't we turn this into a discussion about what I'm raising this for, since there are numerous ways to actually go about doing this instead of the Ronald McDonald Charity?
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a penny in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Archmage

Gender: Male

Location: New Jersey

Rank: Medium-in-training

Joined: Wed May 02, 2007 12:48 am

Posts: 309

So we talk about ways to raise money?

Does prostitution count?
Re: I'll put a nickel in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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stirring

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Joined: Tue Feb 27, 2007 5:26 pm

Posts: 4791

No, I mean, who I'm giving this money to.

This isn't a joke. It's a serious topic. I will give the money to something at the end of this.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a nickel in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Archmage

Gender: Male

Location: New Jersey

Rank: Medium-in-training

Joined: Wed May 02, 2007 12:48 am

Posts: 309

How about you give it to Unicef, or find out places that need money like rec centers or hell give it to homeless people! or if you need a few laughs, donate it to croik.
Re: I'll put a dime in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title
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stirring

Gender: Female

Rank: Ace Attorney

Joined: Tue Feb 27, 2007 5:26 pm

Posts: 4791

Updated.

After some thought, I realized that I'd have to upgrade to dimes, or this would be going nowhere.
If you come across an older post of mine, said with insensitivity or without empathy, I am sorry.
Re: I'll put a dime in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

*insert something witty here*

Gender: Male

Rank: Decisive Witness

Joined: Wed Feb 28, 2007 12:25 pm

Posts: 177

So that's $3.40 at time of this post
Re: I'll put a dime in Ronald McDonald's charity box...Topic%20Title

Paddy O'Reily O'Shwartzenburg

Gender: None specified

Location: Hotel Moscow

Rank: Donor

Joined: Fri Feb 23, 2007 4:30 am

Posts: 841

Always research a charity before giving money to them--you can find out usually what they do and also how your money will be best spent.

Also, don't give it to a homeless person; if you really want to help them, give it to a homeless shelter.
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